Exotic bifurcations in three connected populations with Allee effect

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We consider three connected populations with Allee effect, and give a complete classification of the steady state structure of the system with respect to the Allee threshold and the dispersal rate, describing the bifurcations at each critical point where the number of steady states change. One may expect that by increasing the dispersal rate between the patches, the system would become more well-mixed hence simpler, however we show that it is not always the case, and the number of steady states may (temporarily) increase by increasing the dispersal rate. Besides sequences of pitchfork and saddle-node bifurcations, we find triple-transcritical bifurcations and also a sun-ray shaped bifurcation where twelve steady states meet at a single point then disappear.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2150202
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • population dynamics
  • bifurcation
  • steady state
  • Allee effect
  • dispersal
  • cylindrical algebraic decomposition
  • discriminant variety


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