Examining Legacies of Unsuccessful Olympic Bids: Evidence from a Cross-Case Analysis

Becca Leopkey, Paul Salisbury, Cem Tinaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this paper was to explore the legacies of failed bids in applicant and candidature cities for the Olympic Games. More specifically, we were interested in understanding 1) what are the legacies from unsuccessful Olympic Games bids, and 2) what are the prominent issues related to legacy associated with failed bidding attempts? In order to accomplish this, an iterative case study of three previous Olympic bid cities: Manchester (1996, 2000), Chicago (2016) and Istanbul (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2020) were used to better understand this particular phenomenon. Twelve different failed bid legacy themes across the three cases emerged including: brand perception, coordination, community,
economic, environmental, knowledge, personal, policy, psychological, relationships, structural, and urban. In addition to the broad legacy themes, two additional failed bid legacy issues were identified and elucidated. They included failed bid promises and a lack differentiation between bid and event legacy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-291
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Global Sport Management
Issue number3
Early online date2 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Failed bids
  • Olympic Games
  • legacy
  • sport events

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management


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