Every Loser Wins: Leveraging ‘unsuccessful’ Olympic bids for positive benefits

Tom Bason, Jonathan Grix

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
93 Downloads (Pure)


Research Question
In what ways can cities leverage an unsuccessful Olympic Games bid to bring them positive benefits?

Research Methods
A multiple case study approach using the bids of Cape Town and Toronto for the 2004 and 2008 Olympic Games, respectively. Interviews were conducted with 31 stakeholders across both bids; including 19 members of the respective bid teams and a further 12 interviews with external stakeholders. This data is supplemented by documentary analysis of candidate files, promotional materials and city/council documents.

Results and Findings
Despite the differing political and social contexts of the two cities studied, both utilized similar leveraging strategies. The Olympic bid process focuses those in a city, bringing together coalitions, forcing a city to take stock of its current situation and brings national interest. The bid teams utilized the threat of not being successful to lever national government funding and created leveraging bodies to deliver the strategies.

The implications of this study are twofold. First, it provides cities with insight into how even an unsuccessful Olympic bid can provide benefits. Crucially, only legitimate bidders contributing to already existing plans can access government funding. Second, this research contributes to the bidding literature, providing new empirical material derived using a diverse case study approach, and to the leveraging literature through adapting, extending and updating Chalip’s (2004) conceptual model of event leverage.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-187
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Sport Management Quarterly
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in European Sport Management Quarterly (ESMQ) Every Loser Wins: Leveraging ‘unsuccessful’ Olympic bids for positive benefits
Bason, T. & Grix, J., 16 Nov 2020, (E-pub ahead of print) In: European Sport Management Quarterly. (In-Press), p. (In-Press).

It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This research was supported by a Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme.


  • Olympic bid
  • leveraging
  • mega-event

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Every Loser Wins: Leveraging ‘unsuccessful’ Olympic bids for positive benefits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this