Evaluation of conventional and Equivalent Mortar Volume mix design methods for recycled aggregate concrete

Emmanuel Ejiofor Anike, Messaoud Saidani, Esmaiel Ganjian, Mark Tyrer, Adegoke Olubanwo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
192 Downloads (Pure)


The use of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is undoubtedly on the increase and further research is required for more appropriate mix design methods. This paper presents the result of investigations into the mix design of RAC. The study examined experimentally two conventional and one unconventional mix design methods. The conventional methods include the absolute volume approach according to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard and the Department of Environment (DoE) concrete mix design method given by the British specification. The unconventional method is a new technique dubbed “Equivalent mortar volume (EMV)” method developed to incorporate both fine and coarse recycled aggregates for RAC production. A total of four mixes were designed as follows: (1) natural aggregate concrete regarded as the reference mix using the ACI guide, (2) RAC using the ACI guide, (3) RAC using the DoE guide and (4) blended aggregate concrete using the EMV guide. Fresh concrete properties were tested, and twenty concrete cubes and eighteen cylinders were produced accordingly and tested after curing by water immersion for density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and water absorption. The results showed that the EMV mix design method used significantly lesser amount of cement to achieve a RAC of higher strength than those obtained from its comparable conventional methods even with original natural aggregates. This is the first work on mix design of RAC incorporating both coarse and fine crushed concrete aggregates carried out using the EMV method. This research highlights that the ACI and DoE mix design method guides should be reviewed and amended appropriately, before adopting them for RAC mix design.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
JournalMaterials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1617/s11527-020-1457-3

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • Blended aggregate
  • Compressive strength
  • Equivalent mortar volume
  • Mix design
  • Recycled concrete aggregate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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