Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is made possible by image guidance technology. X-ray fluoroscopy provides high contrast images of catheters and devices, whereas 3D ultrasound is better for visualising cardiac anatomy. We present a system in which the two modalities are combined, with a trans-esophageal echo volume registered to and overlaid on an X-ray projection image in real-time. We evaluate the accuracy of the system in terms of both temporal synchronisation errors and overlay registration errors. The temporal synchronisation error was found to be 10% of the typical cardiac cycle length. In 11 clinical data sets, we found an average alignment error of 2.9 mm. We conclude that the accuracy result is very encouraging and sufficient for guiding many types of cardiac interventions. The combined information is clinically useful for placing the echo image in a familiar coordinate system and for more easily identifying catheters in the echo volume.
|Conference||15th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention|
|Abbreviated title||MICCAI 2012|
|Period||1/10/12 → 5/10/12|