Breathing monitoring is an efficient way of human health sensing and predicting numerous diseases. Various contact and non-contact-based methods are discussed in the literature for breathing monitoring. Radio frequency (RF)-based breathing monitoring has recently gained enormous popularity among non-contact methods. This method eliminates privacy concerns and the need for users to carry a device. In addition, such methods can reduce stress on healthcare facilities by providing intelligent digital health technologies. These intelligent digital technologies utilize a machine learning (ML)-based system for classifying breathing abnormalities. Despite advances in ML-based systems, the increasing dimensionality of data poses a significant challenge, as unrelated features can significantly impact the developed system’s performance. Optimal feature scoring may appear to be a viable solution to this problem, as it has the potential to improve system performance significantly. Initially, in this study, software-defined radio (SDR) and RF sensing techniques were used to develop a breathing monitoring system. Minute variations in wireless channel state information (CSI) due to breathing movement were used to detect breathing abnormalities in breathing patterns. Furthermore, ML algorithms intelligently classified breathing abnormalities in single and multiple-person scenarios. The results were validated by referencing a wearable sensor. Finally, optimal feature scoring was used to improve the developed system’s performance in terms of accuracy, training time, and prediction speed. The results showed that optimal feature scoring can help achieve maximum accuracy of up to 93.8% and 91.7% for single-person and multi-person scenarios, respectively.
Bibliographical noteThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
FunderZayed Health Center at UAE University supports this work in parts under Fund code G00003476, EPSRC grant numbers EP/T021063/1 and EP/T021020/1.
- multi-person breathing
- RF sensing