Enhanced Fast Frequency Support Schemes

Senthooran Balasubramaniam, Soroush Faramehr, Petar Igic, Oluwole D. Adeuyi, Carlos E. Ugalde-Loo, Tibin Joseph, Jun Liang

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review


    The increased penetration of large-scale renewable energy sources may result in ac grids with low inertia, where a sudden generation shortfall could lead to a high rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF). Under such conditions, high-voltage direct-current (HVdc) links are expected to provide fast frequency support to contain frequency deviations within statutory limits. This may be achieved by introducing supplementary loops to the conventional controllers of HVdc converters. However, the response time of typical frequency support schemes is limited by the ramp rate and magnitude of the additional active power through the converters. To overcome these limitations, a temporary overproduction with droop (TOD) control scheme is presented. TOD provides fast frequency support to disturbed ac grids through the injection of additional active power by HVdc converters. A three-terminal meshed HVdc grid implemented on a hardware-in-the-loop test-rig and modeled in Simulink is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme. Experimental and simulation results exhibit good agreement.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication2020 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2020
    Number of pages5
    ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-5508-1
    ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-5509-8
    Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2020
    Event2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting - Montreal, Canada
    Duration: 2 Aug 20206 Aug 2020

    Publication series

    NameIEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting
    ISSN (Print)1944-9925
    ISSN (Electronic)1944-9933


    Conference2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
    Abbreviated titlePESGM


    • Fast frequency control
    • Hardware-in-the-loop
    • Multi-terminal dc grids
    • Voltage source converter

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
    • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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