Employees’ behavioural intention to smartphone security: A gender-based, cross-national study

Nisreen Ameen, Ali Tarhini, Mahmood Shah, Nnamdi O. Madichie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)
489 Downloads (Pure)


Despite the benefits of bring your own device (BYOD) programmes, they are considered one of the top security risks companies are facing. Furthermore, there is a gap in the literature in understanding gender differences in employees' smartphone security behavioural intention. This research analyses gender differences in smartphone security behavioural intention among employees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the United States (US). The research develops a new model, the behavioural model of cybersecurity (BMS), based on a combination of the protection motivation theory (PMT), the general deterrence theory (GDT) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. A questionnaire was distributed to employees in both countries. A total of 1156 useable responses were analysed using partial least squares-structural equation modelling. The findings show that gender differences exist, but neither male nor female employees in either country are aware of the risks associated with their use of smartphones, despite their awareness of the existence of their company's BYOD security policies. The research provides theoretical and practical contributions by developing a new model combining the PMT, GDT and Hofstede's cultural dimensions and suggests gender differences in employees' smartphone security behavioural intention in a cross-national context. It has several practical implications for practitioners and policymakers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106184
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Early online date1 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Computers in Human Behavior. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 104, (2020) DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.106184

© 2019, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


  • BYOD security
  • Employees' BYOD security intention
  • GDT
  • Hofstede's cultural dimensions
  • PMT
  • Smartphone security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Psychology(all)


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