Emissions and performance with diesel and waste lubricating oil: A fundamental study into cold start operation with a special focus on particle number size distribution

Ali Zare, Timothy A. Bodisco, Puneet Verma, Mohammad Jafari, Meisam Babaie, Liping Yang, M. M. Rahman, Andrew Banks, Zoran D. Ristovski, Richard J. Brown, Svetlana Stevanovic

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    19 Citations (Scopus)
    43 Downloads (Pure)


    This study investigates the effect of engine temperature during cold start and hot start engine operation on particulate matter emissions and engine performance parameters. In addition to a fundamental study on cold start operation and the effect of lubricating oil during combustion, this research introduces important knowledge about regulated particulate number emissions and particulate size distribution during cold start, which is an emerging area in the literature. A further aspect of this work is to introduce waste lubricating oil as a fuel. By using diesel and two blends of diesel with 1 and 5% waste lubricating oil in a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine on a cold start custom test, this investigation studied particle number (PN), friction losses and combustion instability with diesel and waste lubricating oil fuel blends. In order to understand and explain the results the following were also studied: particle size distribution and median diameter, engine oil, coolant and exhaust gas temperatures, start of injection, friction mean effective pressure (FMEP), mechanical efficiency, coefficient of variation (CoV) of engine speed, CoV of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and maximum rate of pressure rise were also studied. The results showed that during cold start the increase in engine temperature was associated with an increase in PN and size of particles, and a decrease in FMEP and maximum rate of pressure rise. Compared to a warmed up engine, during cold start, PN, start of injection and mechanical efficiency were lower; while FMEP, CoV of IMEP and maximum rate of pressure rise were higher. Adding 5% waste lubricating oil to the fuel was associated with a decrease in PN (during cold start), decreased particle size, maximum rate of pressure rise and CoV of IMEP and was associated with an increase in PN and nucleation mode particles (during hot start) and FMEP.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number112604
    JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
    Early online date7 Mar 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020

    Bibliographical note

    NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Energy Conversion and Management. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Energy Conversion and Management, 209, (2020) DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2020.112604

    © 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


    Australian Research Council Linkage Projects funding scheme (project number LP110200158).


    • Cold-start
    • Engine warm up
    • Particle size distribution
    • Particulate matter
    • PN
    • Waste lubriacating oil

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
    • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
    • Fuel Technology
    • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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