Efficient Urban Runoff Quantity and Quality Modelling Using SWMM Model and Field Data in an Urban Watershed of Tehran Metropolis

Fariba Zakizadeh, Alireza Moghaddam Nia, Ali Salajegheh, Luis Angel Sañudo-Fontaneda, Nasrin Alamdari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
233 Downloads (Pure)


This study aims to calibrate and validate the EPA Storm Water Management Model from field measurements of rainfall and runoff, in order to simulate the rainfall-runoff process in an urban watershed of Tehran metropolis, Iran. During and after three significant storm events, the flow rates, total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) concentrations were measured at the outlet of the catchment, and were used in the model calibration and validation process. The performance of the SWMM model was evaluated based on the statistical criteria, as well as graphical techniques. In this study, a local sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the key model parameters, show that “the percentage of impervious surface in each subwatershed had the most effect on the model output”. Based on the analysis of the results, SWMM model calibration and validation can be judged as satisfactory, and the goodness-of-fit indices for simulating runoff quality and quantity are placed in acceptable ranges. The adjustment obtained for the variations in the measured and simulated flow rates, pollutograph concentrations, total pollutant load, peak concentration, and the event mean concentration (EMC) confirms the considerable predictive capability of the SWMM model when it is well calibrated by using field measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1086
Number of pages17
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://


  • Calibration and validation
  • Pollutants
  • Simulation
  • SWMM model
  • Urban runoff

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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