Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc, vitamin D, and their co-supplementation versus placebo on changes in the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) score, serum cortisol level, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in obese/overweight patients with depressive symptoms. Method: This 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with obese/overweight patients with depressive symptoms was conducted in the Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr, Emam Khomeini Hospital between July 2016 and February 2017. The intervention period was 12 wk. There were 140 randomized participants who were obese or overweight (mean ± SD, 38.35± 6.70 y of age; mean ± SD body mass index, 30.1 ± 3.78 kg/m 2) with BDI ≥ 10. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio: 2000 IU/d vitamin D + zinc placebo; 30 mg/d zinc gluconate + vitamin D placebo; 2000 IU/d vitamin D + 30 mg/d zinc gluconate; or vitamin D placebo + zinc placebo for 12 wk. Results: We analyzed 125 participants, and a significant decrease in BDI-II was found among those who received zinc, vitamin D, or joint zinc–vitamin D supplements compared with the placebo group (P < 0.001). Zinc was significantly more effective than vitamin D on decreasing the depression score. Supplementation with zinc, vitamin D, or a combination of the two had no significant effects on serum cortisol (P = 0.974) or BDNF (P = 0.076). Fifteen patients discontinued participation owing to pregnancy (n = 1), severe anemia (n = 1), and unspecified unwillingness to continue (n = 13). Conclusion: Supplementation with zinc, vitamin D, or in combination for 12 wk yielded significant beneficial effects on the BDI-II score in obese or overweight patients with BDI-II ≥10.
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Nutrition. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Nutrition, 71, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2019.110601
© 2019, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/10.1016/j.nut.2019.110601
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics