Effects of Stochastic Noises on Limit-Cycle Oscillations and Power Losses in Fusion Plasmas and Information Geometry

Rainer Hollerbach, Eun-jin Kim

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We investigate the effects of different stochastic noises on the dynamics of the edge-localised modes (ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by using a time-dependent PDF method, path-dependent information geometry (information rate, information length), and entropy-related measures (entropy production, mutual information). The oscillation quenching occurs due to either stochastic particle or magnetic perturbations, although particle perturbation is more effective in
this amplitude diminishment compared with magnetic perturbations. On the other hand, magnetic perturbations are more effective at altering the oscillation period; the stochastic noise acts to increase the frequency of explosive oscillations (large ELMs) while decreasing the frequency of more regular oscillations (small ELMs). These stochastic noises significantly reduce power and energy losses caused by ELMs and play a key role in reproducing the observed experimental scaling relation
of the ELM power loss with the input power. Furthermore, the maximum power loss is closely linked to the maximum entropy production rate, involving irreversible energy dissipation in nonequilibrium. Notably, over one ELM cycle, the information rate appears to keep almost a constant value, indicative of a geodesic. The information rate is also shown to be useful for characterising the statistical properties of ELMs, such as distinguishing between explosive and regular oscillations and the regulation between the pressure gradient and magnetic fluctuations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number664
Number of pages19
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).


  • entropy
  • entropy-production
  • mutual information
  • information flow
  • information length
  • information rate
  • oscillations
  • stochastic noise
  • ELMs
  • plasmas


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