Effects of Sitting Callisthenic Balance and Resistance Exercise Programs on Cognitive Function in Older Participants

Sławomir Kujawski, Agnieszka Kujawska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Djordje G. Jakovljevic, Błażej Stankiewicz, Julia L. Newton, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Paweł Zalewski

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
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    Background: Exercise training programs have the potential to improve cognitive function in older subjects. However, the majority of training programs are based on aerobic modality. In the current study, the influence of 3 months programs of sitting callisthenic balance (SCB) and resistance training (RT) on cognitive functioning and the mediating role that a change in the level of neurotrophic factors and strength in older, healthy participants plays were examined. Material and methods: Global cognitive function was examined using MoCA, short-term memory using Digit Span and Delayed Matching to Sample, set shifting using Trial Making Test Part B, speed of processing simple visual stimuli using Simple Reaction Time, decision making using Choice Reaction Time, visual attention with Visual Attention Test (VAT), tests. Strength of lower and upper limbs, neurotrophin level (irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), neurotrophin 4/5 (NT 4/5) were examined. Results: Improved scores in RT vs. SCB were noted in MoCA (p = 0.02), reaction time in SRT (p = 0.02), TMT B (p = 0.03), errors committed in CRT (p = 0.04) and VAT (p = 0.02) were observed. No significant changes in the level of neurotrophic factors were observed. Changes in upper limb strength were related to changes in the number of errors committed in the SRT (p = 0.03). Lower limb strength changes explained the dynamics of the number of correct answers (p = 0.002) and errors committed (p = 0.006) in VAT. Conclusions: Both SCB and RT influenced multiple cognitive domains. The RT program improved global cognitive functioning, while no improvement was noticed in the SCB group. Decision making, visual attention and global cognitive function were improved after the RT program. Set-shifting, short-term visual memory processing speed of simple visual stimuli were improved after the SCB program, while a decrease in the processing speed of simple visual stimuli was noted in the RT group. Changes in irisin were related to set-shifting and short-term memory, while in BDNF to an improvement in the processing speed of simple visual stimuli. Resistance exercise training programs could be applied to prevent age related declines of cognitive function in healthy older subjects.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number14925
    Number of pages18
    JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
    Issue number22
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


    • aerobic capacity
    • cognitive function
    • elderly
    • fitness
    • hypertrophic exercise
    • mental function
    • neurotrophin
    • participation
    • physical activity
    • senior

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pollution
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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