Effects of Movement Velocity and Training Frequency of Resistance Exercise on Functional Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Darren Lee Richardson, Michael Duncan, Alfonso Jimenez, Paul Juris, Neil Clarke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise naïve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-246
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Volume19
Issue number2
Early online date17 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019

Fingerprint

Resistance Training
Hand Strength
Body Composition
Arm
Thorax
Randomized Controlled Trials

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 17/06/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709
Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

Keywords

  • ageing
  • exercise interventions
  • muscle strength
  • power training
  • strength training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Effects of Movement Velocity and Training Frequency of Resistance Exercise on Functional Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial. / Richardson, Darren Lee; Duncan, Michael; Jimenez, Alfonso; Juris, Paul; Clarke, Neil.

In: European Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, 07.02.2019, p. 234-246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{32afbc4816be48dd810523b8bf031cfc,
title = "Effects of Movement Velocity and Training Frequency of Resistance Exercise on Functional Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial",
abstract = "Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise na{\"i}ve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40{\%} 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80{\%} 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .",
keywords = "ageing, exercise interventions, muscle strength, power training, strength training",
author = "Richardson, {Darren Lee} and Michael Duncan and Alfonso Jimenez and Paul Juris and Neil Clarke",
note = "This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 17/06/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709 Copyright {\circledC} and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "7",
doi = "10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709",
language = "English",
volume = "19",
pages = "234--246",
journal = "European Journal of Sport Science",
issn = "1746-1391",
publisher = "Taylor & Francis",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of Movement Velocity and Training Frequency of Resistance Exercise on Functional Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial

AU - Richardson, Darren Lee

AU - Duncan, Michael

AU - Jimenez, Alfonso

AU - Juris, Paul

AU - Clarke, Neil

N1 - This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 17/06/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709 Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.

PY - 2019/2/7

Y1 - 2019/2/7

N2 - Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise naïve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .

AB - Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise naïve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .

KW - ageing

KW - exercise interventions

KW - muscle strength

KW - power training

KW - strength training

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049990932&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709

DO - 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 234

EP - 246

JO - European Journal of Sport Science

JF - European Journal of Sport Science

SN - 1746-1391

IS - 2

ER -