Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise naïve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .
Bibliographical noteThis is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 17/06/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709
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- exercise interventions
- muscle strength
- power training
- strength training
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine