Effects of Movement Velocity and Training Frequency of Resistance Exercise on Functional Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Darren Lee Richardson, Michael Duncan, Alfonso Jimenez, Paul Juris, Neil Clarke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
136 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives: To investigate the effects that high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise, performed once or twice-weekly, have on indices of functional performance (primary outcome), maximal strength, and body composition (secondary outcomes) in older adults. Methods: In a randomised, controlled, multi-armed, parallel design, 54 moderately-highly active, but resistance exercise naïve older adults (aged 60–79 years), attended baseline and post-10-week intervention assessment sessions. Physical and functional assessments were completed, and predicted one-repetition maximums (1-RM) were obtained for eight exercises. Participants were then randomised into one of five conditions: HVLL once-weekly (HVLL1: n = 11) or twice-weekly (HVLL2: n = 11), LVHL once-weekly (LVHL1: n = 10) or twice-weekly (LVHL2: n = 11), no-exercise control condition (CON: n = 11). The HVLL conditions completed 3 sets of 14 repetitions at 40% 1-RM and the LVHL conditions, 3 sets of 7 repetitions at 80% 1-RM. In total, 50 participants completed all testing and were included in analyses. Results: Only LVHL2 improved 30-sec chair stand performance (p =.035; g = 0.89), arm curls (p =.011; g = 1.65) and grip-strength (p =.015; g = 0.34) compared to CON. LVHL2 improved maximal strength compared to CON for 7/8 exercises (p <.05). Whereas, LVHL1 and HVLL2 only improved seated row and chest press compared to CON (p <.05). Conclusion: Possibly due to the lower intensity nature of the HVLL conditions, LVHL, twice-weekly was most beneficial for improving functional performance and strength in moderately-highly active older adults. Therefore, we recommend that exercise professionals ensure resistance exercise sessions have sufficient intensity of effort and volume, in order to maximise functional performance and strength gains in older adults. .

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-246
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Issue number2
Early online date17 Jul 2018
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in European Journal of Sport Science on 17/06/2019, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/17461391.2018.1497709
Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • ageing
  • exercise interventions
  • muscle strength
  • power training
  • strength training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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