Objective: This study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on electroencephalography (EEG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. Approach: EEG signals were recorded by a BIOSEMI Active Two system with Pin-Type active-electrodes from 18 healthy subjects when they performed the right arm side lateral raise task (90° away from the body) with three different loads (0 kg, 1 kg and 3 kg; their order was randomized among the subjects) on the forearm. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as non-fatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted as fatigue status. The subject was then given a 5 min resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was performed on each subject except that ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the 5 min resting period. EEG features from C3 and C4 electrodes including the power of alpha, beta and gamma and sample entropy were analyzed and compared between different loads, non-fatigue/fatigue status, and with/without ELF magnetic stimulation. Main results: The key results were associated with the change of the power of alpha band. From both C3-EEG and C4-EEG, with 1 kg and 3 kg force loads, the power of alpha band was significantly smaller than that from 0 kg for both non-fatigue and fatigue periods (all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference of the power in alpha between 1 kg and 3 kg was observed (p > 0.05 for all the force loads except C4-EEG with ELF simulation). The power of alpha band at fatigue status was significantly increased for both C3-EEG and C4-EEG when compared with the non-fatigue status (p < 0.01 for all the force loads except 3 kg force from C4-EEG). With magnetic stimulation, the powers of alpha from C3-EEG and C4-EEG were significantly decreased than without stimulation (all p < 0.05), and the difference in the power of alpha between fatigue and non-fatigue status disappeared with 1 kg and 3 kg force loads, The powers of beta and gamma bands and SampEn were not significantly different between different force loads, between fatigue and non-fatigue status, and between with and without ELF magnetic stimulation (all p > 0.05, except between non-fatigue and fatigue with magnetic stimulation in gamma band of C3-EEG at 1 kg, and in the SampEn at 1 kg and 3 kg force loads from C4-EEG). Significance: Our study comprehensively quantified the effects of force, fatigue and the ELF magnetic stimulation on EEG features with difference forces, fatigue status and ELF magnetic stimulation.
Wang, Y., Cao, L., Hao, D., Rong, Y., Sang, L., Zhang, S., ... Zheng, D. (2017). Effects of force load, muscle fatigue and extremely low frequency magnetic stimulation on EEG signals during side arm lateral raise task. Physiological Measurement, 38(5), . https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6579/aa6b4b