Effects of deep breathing on blood pressure measurement in healthy subjects

Luigi Yuri Di Marco, D. Zheng, Alan Murray

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of deep breathing on blood pressure parameters: systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and pulse pressure, mean pulse rate (MPR), and the amplitude of Korotkoff sounds. Manual SBP and DBP were measured from 20 healthy subjects (age: 44±13 years) during normal (NB) and deep (DB) breathing. A chest magnetometer was used to acquire the respiratory depth, and an electronic stethoscope for the Korotkoff sound. All data were sampled at 2 kHz. MPR was derived from the oscillometric pulse waveform. For each oscillometric pulse, time-frequency analysis of the Korotkoff sound located the time of the peak energy (Tp), and Korotkoff sounds amplitude was defined as the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude in the window T P ±50ms. The respiratory rate was calculated from both the magnetometer (f R ) and Korotkoff amplitude series (f K ) for the period between the manually measured SBP and DBP, with a power spectral density resolution of 0.016 Hz in the physiological respiratory frequency range at rest. DB compared to NB increased respiratory regularity (quantified by spectral concentration) by 9±10% (mean±SD, p<;0.005), and decreased f R from 0.24±0.06 to 0.20±0.05 Hz (p<;0.0005). SBP and pulse pressure also decreased, from 116±12 to 113±11 mmHg (p<;0.005) and 41±9 to 37±9 mmHg (p<;0.01) respectively, and MPR increased from 64±8 to 68±9 pulse/min (p<;0.0005). In 70% of recordings f R differed from f K by 0.05 Hz or less. The results show an effect of DB on blood pressure, and the presence of a modulating effect of respiration on the Korotkoff sound.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputing in Cardiology
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4673-2077-1
ISBN (Print)978-1-4673-2076-4
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventComputing in Cardiology Conference 2012 - Krakow, Poland
Duration: 9 Sep 201212 Sep 2012

Publication series

ISSN (Print)0276-6574
ISSN (Electronic)2325-8853


ConferenceComputing in Cardiology Conference 2012

Bibliographical note

Since volume 33 (2006), CinC has been an open-access publication, in which copyright in each article is held by its authors, who grant permission to copy and redistribute their work with attribution, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.


  • Blood pressure
  • Pressure measurement
  • Pulse measurements
  • Niobium
  • Magnetometers
  • Stethoscope
  • Time frequency analysis


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