Nonthermal plasma (NTP) treatment of exhaust gas is a promising technology for both nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) reduction by introducing plasma into the exhaust gases. This paper considers the effect of NTP on PM mass reduction, PM size distribution, and PM removal efficiency. The experiments are performed on real exhaust gases from a diesel engine. The NTP is generated by applying high-voltage pulses using a pulsed power supply across a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The effects of the applied high-voltage pulses up to 19.44 kVpp with repetition rate of 10 kHz are investigated. In this paper, it is shown that the PM removal and PM size distribution need to be considered both together, as it is possible to achieve high PM removal efficiency with undesirable increase in the number of small particles. Regarding these two important factors, in this paper, 17-kVpp voltage level is determined to be an optimum point for the given configuration. Moreover, particles deposition on the surface of the DBD reactor is found to be a significant phenomenon, which should be considered in all plasma PM removal tests.