Effect of pulsed metal inert gas (pulsed-MIG) and cold metal transfer (CMT) techniques on hydrogen dissolution in wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) of aluminium

Karan Derekar, Adrian Addison, Sameehan Joshi, Xiang Zhang, Jonathan Lawrence, Lei Xu, Geoff Melton, David Griffiths

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    56 Citations (Scopus)
    296 Downloads (Pure)


    Aluminium is one of the most experimented metals in the WAAM field owing to a wide range of applications in the automotive sector. Due to concerns over reduction of strength, elimination of porosity from wire arc additive manufactured aluminium is one of the major challenges. In line with this, the current investigation presents findings on hydrogen dissolution in solid aluminium and hydrogen consumed to form porosity along with its distribution as a function of heat inputs and interlayer temperatures in a WAAM 5183 aluminium alloy. Two varieties of WAAM, pulsed metal inert gas (MIG) and cold metal transfer (CMT) were explored. Samples made with pulsed metal inert gas (pulsed MIG) process picked up more hydrogen compared to samples produced by cold metal transfer technique. Correspondingly, pulsed MIG samples showed increased number of pores and volume fraction of porosity than samples manufactured using the cold metal transfer (CMT) technique for different heat input and interlayer temperature conditions. However, CMT samples exhibited higher amount of dissolved hydrogen in solid solution compared to pulsed MIG process. In addition, heat input, interlayer temperature and interlayer dwell time also played a key role in pore formation and distribution in WAAM produced aluminium 5183 alloy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)311-331
    Number of pages21
    JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    Issue number1-2
    Early online date15 Feb 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

    Bibliographical note

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s00170-020-04946-2

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


    Lloyd’s Register foundation (Grant Number KD022017COV), Coventry University (Grant Number 7477993) and Kraken project, a Horizon 2020 project (Grant Number 723759) funded by European Commission.


    • Aluminium
    • Cold metal transfer (CMT)
    • Hydrogen dissolution
    • Interlayer temperature
    • Porosity
    • Pulsed metal inert gas (pulsed-MIG)
    • Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Control and Systems Engineering
    • Software
    • Mechanical Engineering
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


    Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of pulsed metal inert gas (pulsed-MIG) and cold metal transfer (CMT) techniques on hydrogen dissolution in wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) of aluminium'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this