OBJECTIVE: Low-potassium diets are recommended to reduce serum potassium (Sk) and prevent complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence underpinning this recommendation has not been systematically reviewed and synthesized. We conducted a systematic review comparing change in Sk, CKD progression, and mortality between those on a low-potassium versus unrestricted potassium diet.
METHODS: We searched Medline, AMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinicaltrials.org from inception to 3 April 2018. We included randomized and observational studies that compared these outcomes in adults with CKD who ate a restricted versus unrestricted amount of dietary potassium. We pooled mean change in Sk and adjusted hazard ratios of disease progression and mortality using random-effects meta-analyses.
RESULTS: We identified 5,563 articles, of which seven studies (3,489 participants) met our inclusion criteria. We found very low-quality evidence that restricted (1,295 mg/d) versus unrestricted (1,570 mg/d) dietary potassium lowered Sk by -0.22 mEq/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.33, -0.10; I2 = 0%). Lower (1,725 mg/d) versus higher (4,558 mg/d) dietary potassium was not significantly associated with disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.70; I2 = 57%). Lower (1,670 mg/d), compared with higher (4,414 mg/d) dietary potassium intake was associated with a 40% reduction in mortality hazard (HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.89; I2 = 56%).
CONCLUSIONS: Very-low-quality evidence supports consensus that dietary potassium restriction reduces Sk in normokalemia and is associated with a reduced risk of death in those with CKD. High-quality randomized controlled trials are needed.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation|
|Early online date||14 Nov 2019|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jul 2020|
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Renal Nutrition. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Renal Nutrition, 30:4, (2020) DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2019.09.009
© 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics