EBSD characterization of graphene nano sheet reinforced Sn–Ag solder alloy composites

Jayesh Shanthi Bhavan, Ashwath Pazhani, P.S. Robi, Abhishek Ambi, Unnikrishnan Tg, Vishnu Kc

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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This research explores the effects of incorporating Graphene Nano Sheets (GNS) on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical behavior of Sn–Ag solder alloys. The research was driven by the need for environmentally friendly, lead-free solder alloys with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The methodology involved incorporating graphene into the Sn–Ag alloy through stir casting, followed by a series of surface preparation techniques. The composite samples were then examined using EBSD to analyze crystallographic orientations and SEM/EDS for surface morphology and elemental composition. XRD provided insights into phase transformations and structural changes. Key findings reveal that the addition of GNS significantly refines the grain structure of the Sn–Ag alloy, leading to a bimodal grain size distribution. This refinement is attributed to the role of GNS as a nucleation site during solidification. Moreover, the study demonstrates a pronounced alteration in the texture of the material, with an increase in low-angle grain boundaries post-GNS addition. This texture change is indicative of enhanced mechanical properties. The results also show a shift in the orientation distribution function (ODF), suggesting a stronger crystallographic orientation due to GNS. These findings suggest that GNS incorporation could lead to improved mechanical and thermal properties in Sn–Ag solder, making them suitable for high-performance electronic applications. The study concludes that GNS not only serves as an effective reinforcement in Sn–Ag solder alloys but also significantly alters their microstructural and textural characteristics, contributing to the alloy's potential application in environmentally conscious electronic manufacturing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2768-2780
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Early online date8 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


  • Graphene nano Sheets
  • Sn–Ag Solder alloys
  • Microstructural characterization
  • Electron Backscatter diffraction
  • Lead-free


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