Early feeding and growth pattern in infants: Using a three-variate longitudinal model derived from Gaussian copula function

Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Mohammad Sadegh Loeloe , Mohammad Reza Akhoond , Alireza Daneshkhah, Fatemeh Borazjani

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Abstract

Background: The Gaussian copula model was used to generate joint distributions for continuous longitudinal variables on infant types of feeding and longitudinal measures of height, weight and head circumference
Methods: The study was performed longitudinally in rural areas of southern part of Iran, on children from birth to 9 months of age. Out of 319 infants with serial anthropometric measurements from birth, and 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 months
old, 120 were included. Infants were divided into three groups (breast fed, formula fed and both milk types). A threevariate longitudinal model including Copula function was used to estimate the effect of feeding on growth pattern. All
the analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4 (Proc NLmix).
Results: Ninety infants (75%) were breastfed, sixteen (13.3%) were formula fed and fourteen (11.7%) had combined feeding. Copula model showed that, breast fed children had a better weight gain (β=0.627 95% CI 0.217-1.038 P = 0.003), height (β=2.603 95% CI 1.023-4.183 P = 0.001) and head circumference (β=0.8 95% CI 0.069-1.531 P = 0.0) as compared to formula fed children. R2 for Copula model was (wt=0.52, ht=0.96, hc=0.84).
Conclusions: Implication of Copula model was easy to perform. Estimation of the parameters in copula model indicated that, breast milk consumption had a positive effect on the growth of infants.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12908
Pages (from-to)e12908-1-e12908-9
Number of pages9
JournalEpidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health
Volume15
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Feeding Behavior
Growth
Breast
Head
Parturition
Human Milk
Iran
Weight Gain
Milk
Weights and Measures

Bibliographical note

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Keywords

  • Growth
  • body measures
  • breast feeding
  • multivariate longitudinal model;
  • Gaussian Copula model

Cite this

Early feeding and growth pattern in infants : Using a three-variate longitudinal model derived from Gaussian copula function. / Ahmadi Angali, Kambiz ; Loeloe , Mohammad Sadegh ; Akhoond , Mohammad Reza ; Daneshkhah, Alireza; Borazjani , Fatemeh.

In: Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, Vol. 15, No. 4, e12908, 2018, p. e12908-1-e12908-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ahmadi Angali, Kambiz ; Loeloe , Mohammad Sadegh ; Akhoond , Mohammad Reza ; Daneshkhah, Alireza ; Borazjani , Fatemeh. / Early feeding and growth pattern in infants : Using a three-variate longitudinal model derived from Gaussian copula function. In: Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health. 2018 ; Vol. 15, No. 4. pp. e12908-1-e12908-9.
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AU - Akhoond , Mohammad Reza

AU - Daneshkhah, Alireza

AU - Borazjani , Fatemeh

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N2 - Background: The Gaussian copula model was used to generate joint distributions for continuous longitudinal variables on infant types of feeding and longitudinal measures of height, weight and head circumferenceMethods: The study was performed longitudinally in rural areas of southern part of Iran, on children from birth to 9 months of age. Out of 319 infants with serial anthropometric measurements from birth, and 2, 4, 6, 7 and 9 monthsold, 120 were included. Infants were divided into three groups (breast fed, formula fed and both milk types). A threevariate longitudinal model including Copula function was used to estimate the effect of feeding on growth pattern. Allthe analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4 (Proc NLmix).Results: Ninety infants (75%) were breastfed, sixteen (13.3%) were formula fed and fourteen (11.7%) had combined feeding. Copula model showed that, breast fed children had a better weight gain (β=0.627 95% CI 0.217-1.038 P = 0.003), height (β=2.603 95% CI 1.023-4.183 P = 0.001) and head circumference (β=0.8 95% CI 0.069-1.531 P = 0.0) as compared to formula fed children. R2 for Copula model was (wt=0.52, ht=0.96, hc=0.84).Conclusions: Implication of Copula model was easy to perform. Estimation of the parameters in copula model indicated that, breast milk consumption had a positive effect on the growth of infants.

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