In classical mechanics, external constraints on the dynamical variables can be easily implemented within the Lagrangian formulation. Conversely, the extension of this idea to the quantum realm, which dates back to Dirac, has proven notoriously difficult due to the noncommutativity of observables. Motivated by recent progress in the experimental control of quantum systems, we propose a framework for the implementation of quantum constraints based on the idea of work protocols, which are dynamically engineered to enforce the constraints. As a proof of principle, we consider the dynamical mean-field approach of the many-body quantum spherical model, which takes the form of a quantum harmonic oscillator plus constraints on the first and second moments of one of its quadratures. The constraints of the model are implemented by the combination of two work protocols, coupling together the first and second moments of the quadrature operators. We find that such constraints affect the equations of motion in a highly nontrivial way, inducing nonlinear behavior and even classical chaos. Interestingly, Gaussianity is preserved at all times. A discussion concerning the robustness of this approach to possible experimental errors is also presented.
|Journal||Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Jul 2018|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.