Dynamic precision control in single-grit scratch tests using acoustic emission signals

James Marcus Griffin, Fernando Torres

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    Acoustic emission (AE) is very sensitive to minuscule molecular changes which allow it to be used in a dynamic control manner. The work presented here specifically investigates approaching grit and workpiece interaction during grinding processes. The single grit (SG) tests used in this work display that the intensities from air, occurring in between the grit and workpiece, show an increasing intensity as the grit tends towards the workpiece with 1-μm increments. As the grit interacts with the workpiece, a scratch is formed; different intensities are recorded with respect to a changing measured depth of cut (DOC). In the first instance, various AE were low tending towards high signal to noise ratios which is indicative of grit approaching contact; when contact is made, frictional rubbing is noticed, then ploughing with low DOC and, finally, actual cutting with a higher associated DOC. Dynamic control is obtained from the AE sensor extracting increasing amplitude significant of elastic changing towards greater plastic material deformation. Such control methods can be useful for grinding dressing ratios as well as achieving near optimal surface finish when faced with difficult to cut geometries. Two different materials were used for the same SG tests (aerospace alloys: CMSX4 and titanium-64) to verify that the control regime is robust and not just material dependent. The AE signals were then classified using neural networks (NNs) and classification and regression trees (CART)-based rules. A real-time simulation is provided showing such interactions allowing dynamic micro precision control. The results show clear demarcation between the extracted synthesized signals ensuring high accuracy for determining different phenomena: 3–1 μm approaching touch, touch, slight plastic deformation and, increasing plastic deformation. In addition to dressing ratios, the results are also important for micron accuracy set-up considerations.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)935-953
    Number of pages19
    JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
    Issue number5-8
    Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2015


    • Acoustic emission
    • Feature extraction
    • Precision control
    • Single-grit scratch
    • CART
    • Neural networks
    • Simulations
    • Embedded controllers


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