Driving automation: Learning from aviation about design philosophies

Mark S. Young, Neville A. Stanton, Don Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)


Full vehicle automation is predicted to be on British roads by 2030 (Walker et al., 2001). However, experience in aviation gives us some cause for concern for the 'drive-by-wire' car (Stanton and Marsden, 1996). Two different philosophies have emerged in aviation for dealing with the human factor: hard vs. soft automation, depending on whether the computer or the pilot has ultimate authority (Hughes and Dornheim, 1995). This paper speculates whether hard or soft automation provides the best solution for road vehicles, and considers an alternative design philosophy in vehicles of the future based on coordination and cooperation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-338
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Automation
  • Automobiles
  • Aviation
  • CRM
  • Human-centred design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering


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