Does the timing of deinfibulation for women with type 3 female genital mutilation affect labour outcomes?

J. Albert, Elizabeth Bailey, M. Duaso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine whether timing of deinfibulation influences obstetric outcomes for women with type 3 female genital mutilation (FGM). Design: A retrospective observational study comprising 94 women with type 3 FGM who gave birth from 2008–2012. Method: Outcomes described in maternity notes of women with deinfibulation performed prior to labour (n=62) compared with ‘not deinfibulated before labour’ (n=32). Secondary analysis was then performed excluding women who had caesarean sections. Findings: Women who were ‘not deinfibulated before labour’ had a significantly greater risk of episiotomy (RR 1.67, P2 days (RR 1.33, P
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)430–437
JournalBritish Journal of Midwifery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015


Bibliographical note

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in the British Journal of Midwifery, copyright © MA Healthcare, after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see


  • FGM
  • Deinfibulation
  • Pregnancy
  • Reversal
  • Type 3

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