Direct toxicity assessment of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater and derivation of a site-specific guideline

James Hunt, Gavin Birch, Michael St John Warne, Rick Krassoi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Groundwater contaminated with a mixture of 14 volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) discharges to an estuarine embayment in Sydney, Australia. A screening-level hazard assessment identified a potential risk to aquatic organisms from surface water contaminated by the groundwater. Direct toxicity assessment of the groundwater was undertaken on 5 indigenous marine species to assess toxicity and derive a site-specific guideline. The testing included acute tests, subchronic tests on early life stages, and a chronic test. Test organisms included a microalga (Nitzschia closterium), an amphipod (Allorchestes compressa), a polychaete worm (Diopatra dentata), and sea urchin (Heliocidaris tuberculata) and oyster larvae (Saccostrea commercialis). Toxicity testing was undertaken in sealed containers to prevent loss of VCHs, and concentrations of VCHs were measured to accurately assess exposure concentrations. No observed effect concentration (NOEC) values varied from 1.56% dilution (1.11 mg total VCHs) to 50% dilution (45.5 mg total VCHs). EC50 values varied from 4.8% dilution (3.77 mg total VCHs) to more than 50% dilution (45.5 mg total VCHs). NOEC data were used to derive species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and a site-specific guideline. SSDs were derived from Burr type III (including the Pareto) and log-normal distributions. The log-normal distribution represented the best fit, and because the Pareto distribution is a finite threshold model more suited to toxicants with a threshold mode of action, the log-normal SSD and the associated 95% trigger value (TV) of 830 μg/L of total VCHs, was adopted as the site-specific TV for the groundwater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)338-348
Number of pages11
JournalIntegrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Hunt, J, Birch, G, Warne, MSJ & Krassoi, R 2009, 'Direct toxicity assessment of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater and derivation of a site-specific guideline' Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 338-348, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1897/IEAM_2008-070. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders

Keywords

  • Direct toxicity assessment
  • Groundwater
  • Hazard assessment
  • Site-specific toxicity
  • Volatile hydrocarbons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Environmental Science(all)

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