Digital Peer-Supported Self-Management Intervention Codesigned by People With Long COVID: Mixed Methods Proof-of-Concept Study

Hayley Wright, Andrew Turner, Stuart Ennis, Carol Percy, Garry Loftus, Wendy Clyne, Gabriela Matouskova, Faith Martin

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3 Citations (Scopus)
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There are around 1.3 million people in the United Kingdom with the devastating psychological, physical, and cognitive consequences of long COVID (LC). UK guidelines recommend that LC symptoms be managed pragmatically with holistic support for patients' biopsychosocial needs, including psychological, emotional, and physical health. Self-management strategies, such as pacing, prioritization, and goal setting, are vital for the self-management of many LC symptoms.

This paper describes the codevelopment and initial testing of a digital intervention combining peer support with positive psychology approaches for self-managing the physical, emotional, psychological, and cognitive challenges associated with LC. The objectives of this study were to (1) codesign an intervention with and for people with LC; (2) test the intervention and study methods; (3) measure changes in participant well-being, self-efficacy, fatigue, and loneliness; and (4) understand the types of self-management goals and strategies used by people with LC.

The study used a pre-post, mixed methods, pragmatic, uncontrolled design. Digital intervention content was codeveloped with a lived-experience group to meet the needs uncovered during the intervention development and logic mapping phase. The resulting 8-week digital intervention, Hope Programme for Long COVID, was attended by 47 participants, who completed pre- and postprogram measures of well-being, self-efficacy, fatigue, and loneliness. Goal-setting data were extracted from the digital platform at the end of the intervention.

The recruitment rate (n=47, 83.9%) and follow-up rate (n=28, 59.6%) were encouraging. Positive mental well-being (mean difference 6.5, P

The bespoke self-management intervention, Hope Programme for Long COVID, was well attended, and follow-up was encouraging. The sample characteristics largely mirrored those of the wider UK population with LC. Although not powered to detect statistically significant changes, the preliminary data show improvements in self-efficacy and positive mental well-being. Our next trial (ISRCTN: 11868601) will use a nonrandomized waitlist control design to further examine intervention efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere41410
Number of pages15
JournalJMIR Formative Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Formative Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.


  • COVID-19
  • UK
  • United Kingdom
  • cognitive
  • digital intervention
  • efficacy
  • goal setting
  • intervention
  • long COVID
  • peer support
  • physical
  • psychological
  • self-management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health Informatics


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