Germanium is being actively considered by the semiconductor community as a mainstream material for nanoelectronic applications. Germanium has advantageous materials properties; however, its dopant-defect interactions are less understood as compared to the mainstream material, silicon. The understanding of self- and dopant diffusion is essential to form well defined doped regions. Although p-type dopants such as boron exhibit limited diffusion, n-type dopants such as phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony diffuse quickly via vacancy-mediated diffusion mechanisms. In the present review, we mainly focus on the impact of intrinsic defects on the diffusion mechanisms of donor atoms and point defect engineering strategies to restrain donor atom diffusion and to enhance their electrical activation
Copyright 2014 AIP Publishing. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. The following article appeared in Chroneos, A. and Bracht, H. (2014) Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium. Applied Physics Reviews , volume 1 (Article number 011301) and may be found at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apr2/1/1/10.1063/1.4838215 .