Dietary patterns and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Ammar Salehi-Sahlabadi, Samaneh Sadat, Sara Beigrezaei, Makan Pourmasomi, Awat Feizi, Reza Ghiasvand, Amir Hadi, Cain C T Clark, Maryam Miraghajani

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a modifiable risk factor that plays an important role in the prevention or delaying of the onset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies have focused on NAFLD and individual nutrients, which does not take into account combinations of food that are consumed. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and NAFLD.

METHODS: This case-control study was conducted on 225 newly diagnosed NAFLD patients and 450 healthy controls. Usual dietary intake over the preceding year was assessed using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major dietary patterns were determined by exploratory factor analysis.

RESULTS: Three dietary patterns, including "western dietary pattern", "healthy dietary pattern", and "traditional dietary pattern" were identified. Subjects in the highest tertile of healthy dietary pattern scores had a lower odds ratio for NAFLD than those in the lowest tertile. Compared with those in the lowest tertile, people in the highest tertile of "western dietary pattern" scores had greater odds for NAFLD. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, "western dietary pattern" had a positive significant effect on NAFLD occurrence. In contrast, "healthy dietary pattern" was associated with a decreased risk of NAFLD. Furthermore, Higher consumption of the "traditional dietary pattern" was significantly associated with NAFLD, albeit in the crude model only.

CONCLUSION: This study indicated that healthy and western dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of NAFLD. The results can be used for developing interventions in order to promote healthy eating for the prevention of NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Gastroenterology
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Keywords

  • Dietary patterns
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • NAFLD
  • Factor analysis
  • Case–control study

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