Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

Esther Molina-Montes, Petra A. Wark, María José Sánchez, Teresa Norat, Paula Jakszyn, Leila Luján-Barroso, Dominique S. Michaud, Francesca Crowe, Naomi Allen, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas Wareham, Antonia Trichopoulou, George Adarakis, Helen Katarachia, Guri Skeie, Maria Henningsen, Ann Ragnhild Broderstad, Franco Berrino, Rosario Tumino, Domenico Palli & 27 others Amalia Mattiello, Paolo Vineis, Pilar Amiano, Aurelio Barricarte, José María Huerta, Eric J. Duell, José Ramõn Quirõs, Weimin Ye, Malin Sund, Björn Lindkvist, Dorthe Johansen, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Nina Roswall, Kuanrong Li, Verena A. Grote, Annika Steffen, Heiner Boeing, Antoine Racine, Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Petra H M Peeters, Peter D. Siersema, Veronika Fedirko, Mazda Jenab, Elio Riboli, Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    16 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)E1134–E1147
    Number of pages14
    JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
    Volume131
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2012

    Fingerprint

    Dietary Iron
    Heme
    Pancreatic Neoplasms
    Magnesium
    Iron
    Neoplasms
    Confidence Intervals
    Energy Intake
    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Calibration
    Body Mass Index
    Smoking
    Weights and Measures
    Food

    Keywords

    • cohort
    • diet
    • epidemiology
    • iron
    • magnesium
    • nutrients
    • pancreatic cancer

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)
    • Oncology
    • Cancer Research

    Cite this

    Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. / Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A.; Sánchez, María José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S.; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José María; Duell, Eric J.; Quirõs, José Ramõn; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A.; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D.; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas.

    In: International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 131, No. 7, 01.10.2012, p. E1134–E1147.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Molina-Montes, E, Wark, PA, Sánchez, MJ, Norat, T, Jakszyn, P, Luján-Barroso, L, Michaud, DS, Crowe, F, Allen, N, Khaw, KT, Wareham, N, Trichopoulou, A, Adarakis, G, Katarachia, H, Skeie, G, Henningsen, M, Broderstad, AR, Berrino, F, Tumino, R, Palli, D, Mattiello, A, Vineis, P, Amiano, P, Barricarte, A, Huerta, JM, Duell, EJ, Quirõs, JR, Ye, W, Sund, M, Lindkvist, B, Johansen, D, Overvad, K, Tjønneland, A, Roswall, N, Li, K, Grote, VA, Steffen, A, Boeing, H, Racine, A, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Carbonnel, F, Peeters, PHM, Siersema, PD, Fedirko, V, Jenab, M, Riboli, E & Bueno-De-Mesquita, B 2012, 'Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort' International Journal of Cancer, vol. 131, no. 7, pp. E1134–E1147. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27547
    Molina-Montes, Esther ; Wark, Petra A. ; Sánchez, María José ; Norat, Teresa ; Jakszyn, Paula ; Luján-Barroso, Leila ; Michaud, Dominique S. ; Crowe, Francesca ; Allen, Naomi ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Wareham, Nicholas ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Adarakis, George ; Katarachia, Helen ; Skeie, Guri ; Henningsen, Maria ; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild ; Berrino, Franco ; Tumino, Rosario ; Palli, Domenico ; Mattiello, Amalia ; Vineis, Paolo ; Amiano, Pilar ; Barricarte, Aurelio ; Huerta, José María ; Duell, Eric J. ; Quirõs, José Ramõn ; Ye, Weimin ; Sund, Malin ; Lindkvist, Björn ; Johansen, Dorthe ; Overvad, Kim ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Roswall, Nina ; Li, Kuanrong ; Grote, Verena A. ; Steffen, Annika ; Boeing, Heiner ; Racine, Antoine ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine ; Carbonnel, Franck ; Peeters, Petra H M ; Siersema, Peter D. ; Fedirko, Veronika ; Jenab, Mazda ; Riboli, Elio ; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas. / Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. In: International Journal of Cancer. 2012 ; Vol. 131, No. 7. pp. E1134–E1147.
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    abstract = "Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95{\%} confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95{\%} CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95{\%} CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95{\%} CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.",
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    T1 - Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    AU - Molina-Montes, Esther

    AU - Wark, Petra A.

    AU - Sánchez, María José

    AU - Norat, Teresa

    AU - Jakszyn, Paula

    AU - Luján-Barroso, Leila

    AU - Michaud, Dominique S.

    AU - Crowe, Francesca

    AU - Allen, Naomi

    AU - Khaw, Kay Tee

    AU - Wareham, Nicholas

    AU - Trichopoulou, Antonia

    AU - Adarakis, George

    AU - Katarachia, Helen

    AU - Skeie, Guri

    AU - Henningsen, Maria

    AU - Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    AU - Berrino, Franco

    AU - Tumino, Rosario

    AU - Palli, Domenico

    AU - Mattiello, Amalia

    AU - Vineis, Paolo

    AU - Amiano, Pilar

    AU - Barricarte, Aurelio

    AU - Huerta, José María

    AU - Duell, Eric J.

    AU - Quirõs, José Ramõn

    AU - Ye, Weimin

    AU - Sund, Malin

    AU - Lindkvist, Björn

    AU - Johansen, Dorthe

    AU - Overvad, Kim

    AU - Tjønneland, Anne

    AU - Roswall, Nina

    AU - Li, Kuanrong

    AU - Grote, Verena A.

    AU - Steffen, Annika

    AU - Boeing, Heiner

    AU - Racine, Antoine

    AU - Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine

    AU - Carbonnel, Franck

    AU - Peeters, Petra H M

    AU - Siersema, Peter D.

    AU - Fedirko, Veronika

    AU - Jenab, Mazda

    AU - Riboli, Elio

    AU - Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas

    PY - 2012/10/1

    Y1 - 2012/10/1

    N2 - Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

    AB - Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

    KW - cohort

    KW - diet

    KW - epidemiology

    KW - iron

    KW - magnesium

    KW - nutrients

    KW - pancreatic cancer

    U2 - 10.1002/ijc.27547

    DO - 10.1002/ijc.27547

    M3 - Article

    VL - 131

    SP - E1134–E1147

    JO - International Journal of Cancer

    JF - International Journal of Cancer

    SN - 0020-7136

    IS - 7

    ER -