Dietary inflammatory index and elevated serum C‐reactive protein: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Salman Mohammadi, Mahboobe Hosseinikia, Ali Ghaffarian‐Bahraman, Cain C. T. Clark, Ian G Davies, Esmaeil Yousefi Rad, Somayeh Saboori

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1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

Diet can affect the inflammatory state of the body. Accordingly, the dietary inflammatory index (DII) has been developed to quantify the inflammatory properties of food items. This study sought to investigate the association between dietary inflammation index (DII) and the odds ratio of elevated CRP (E‐CRP) through a systematic review and meta‐analysis study. The International electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), and Scopus were searched until May 2023 to find related articles. From 719 studies found in the initial search, 14 studies, with a total sample size of 59,941 individuals, were included in the meta‐analysis. The calculated pooled odds ratio (OR) of E‐CRP in the highest DII category was 1.39 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.14, test for heterogeneity: p = .63, and I2 = .0%) in comparison with the lowest DII category. Also, the results of this study showed that each unit increase in DII as a continuous variable generally elicited a 10% increase in the odds of E‐CRP (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06, 1.14, test for heterogeneity: p = .63, and I2 = .0%). Subgroup meta‐analyses showed that there is a higher E‐CRP odds ratio for the articles that reported energy‐adjusted DII (E‐DII) instead of DII, the studies that measured CRP instead of hs‐CRP, and the studies that used 24‐h recall instead of FFQ as the instrument of dietary intake data collection. Individuals with a higher DII were estimated to have higher chances of developing elevated serum CRP. This value was influenced by factors such as the participants' nationality, instruments of data collection, methods used to measure inflammatory biomarkers, study design, and data adjustments. However, future well‐designed studies can help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the inflammatory properties of diet and inflammatory serum biomarkers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5786-5798
Number of pages13
JournalFood Science and Nutrition
Volume11
Issue number10
Early online date6 Jul 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Funder

The current study was funded by Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. The funder has played no role in the design of the study or in the collection, analysis, or interpretation of the data. Publisher Copyright: © 2023 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Keywords

  • dietary indices
  • dietary inflammation index
  • CRP
  • DII

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