Development of a cultural self-efficacy scale for adolescents (CSES-A)

Elena Briones, Carmen Tabernero, Carlo Tramontano, Gian Vittorio Caprara, Alicia Arenas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


We developed a cultural self-efficacy scale for adolescents (CSES-A) and tested its psychometric properties using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Cultural self-efficacy (CSE) was defined as person's perception of his/her own capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity. On the basis of Bandura's guideline for the development of a domain-specific self-efficacy measure, we tailored 50 items after reviewing literature about cultural competence, adolescents' school-problems and social self-efficacy scales developed in previous studies in intercultural contexts. After pre-testing and analyzing psychometric properties of the scale, we selected 33 items. Eight hundred sixty-eight adolescents with five different cultural origins completed a set of questionnaires, including the CSES-A, internal control expectancies, general self-efficacy, academic expectancies, number of people from diverse cultures they keep in touch with, acculturation attitudes, perceived enrichment of other cultures, acculturation stress and demographic data. An EFA with MPLUS 2.14 highlighted a five-factor solution with 25 items that was supported by a subsequent CFA. The five factors were: self-efficacy in mixing satisfactorily with other cultures, in understanding different ways of life, in processing information from other cultures, in coping with loneliness and in learning and understanding other languages. The pattern of correlation with internal control expectancies, general self-efficacy and cultural variables supported the validity of the scale. CSES-A may be useful for future research on multicultural contexts, in which self-efficacy in cultural adaptation could be a fundamental variable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-312
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number4
Early online date26 Apr 2009
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Cultural diversity
  • Cultural self-efficacy
  • Cultural settings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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