Development and validity of the Motivation Assessment Tool for Physical Education (MAT-PE) among young children

Katie Fitton Davies, Paula M Watson, James Rudd, Liverpool John University, Farid Bardid, Liverpool John University, Zoe Knowles, Lawrence Foweather

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: It is important to understand young children's motivation within Physical Education (PE) so that researchers and teachers can effectively support children's physical, affective, social and cognitive development as well as physical activity (PA) behaviors. However, there is a dearth of motivation research in PE with children under the age of seven due to a lack of developmentally appropriate assessment tools. Aims: This multi-study paper outlines the development, content and construct validity of a novel, mixed-method tool to assess young children's psychological needs and behavioral regulation within PE (Motivation Assessment Tool for Physical Education; MAT-PE). Methods: Study 1 consisted of the iterative development of the MAT-PE through working with 43 young children (ages 5–6) from three primary schools located within a large city in North West England. MAT-PE version 1 was subsequently examined for content validity in 85 children (ages 5–6) from 12 primary schools located within a large city in North West England and nine independent researchers with expertise in self-determination theory. Study 2 consisted of the development, content validation, acceptability and inter- and intra-rater reliability of the MAT-PE codebook. Study 3 explored construct validity through hypothesis-testing via correlational data. Descriptive data captured through the MAT-PE and codebook with 78 children (ages 5–6) from 12 primary schools located within a large city in North West England is also presented. Findings: The MAT-PE and its codebook were judged to have promising content validity, the codebook was deemed acceptable, as well as demonstrating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.90). Regarding construct validity, as hypothesised, all psychological needs were positively correlated and autonomous regulations were negatively associated with amotivation. There were also unexpected correlations such as the negative correlation between intrinsic and identified regulation. Conclusion: Further development of the MAT-PE is required; nevertheless, this study has taken a promising first step in developing a tool to comprehensively measure five-to six-year-old children's motivational perceptions in PE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101915
Number of pages16
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Volume54
Early online date17 Feb 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 54, (2021)
DOI: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101915

© 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Keywords

  • self-determination theory
  • physical education
  • children
  • mixed-methods
  • codebook
  • assessment
  • Self-determination theory
  • Codebook
  • Mixed methods
  • Assessment
  • Children
  • Physical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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