Development and validation of the e-Work Self-Efficacy Scale to assess digital competencies in remote working

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The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of remote working practices worldwide. This has focussed attention on the need to identify the competencies employers and employees should train and develop to build digital resilience, enabling the benefits of remote working to be realised while mitigating potential risks. This contribution presents a multifaceted e-Work Self-Efficacy Scale, which supports a recently developed Digital Resilience Competency Framework (DRCF), assessing e-skills, trust building, self-care, remote social skills, and remote emotional self-efficacy beliefs. Data from 670 non-managerial employees (54.0% males) from a telecommunications company based in the Czech Republic were analysed, providing support for a bi-factor model. Latent Profile Analysis identified three clusters, characterised by different profiles: the Well-adjusted (with a reasonably good balance in engagement, satisfaction, and productivity), the Unhealthily dedicated (suffering some difficulties in setting boundaries), and the Distrustful self-shielding (the most compromised) remote workers. The results reinforce the importance of focusing on digital resilience competencies to promote sustainable, productive, engaging and healthy remote working. The e-Work Self-Efficacy Scale is a practical and effective organisational tool for managers and employees to use to assess and build digital resilience and sits alongside the Digital Resilience Competency Framework.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100129
Number of pages10
JournalComputers in Human Behaviour Reports
Early online date31 Jul 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Under a Creative Commons license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


  • E-work
  • Remote work
  • Self-efficacy
  • Digital competencies
  • COVID-19
  • Wellbeing


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