Designing Augmented Reality for Future Commercial Aviation: A User-Requirement Analysis with Commercial Aviation Pilots.

James Blundell, Don Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
22 Downloads (Pure)


Augmented reality (AR) capable head-mounted displays (HMDs) have been proposed as technological enablers of several complex future flight concepts, which will bring accompanying pilot situation awareness (SA) and operational safety enhancements. However, relevant aviation design guidance concerning the implementation of modern HMD technologies and AR symbology is sparse. Consequently, the current study describes an SA grounded user-requirements analysis of operational applications for HMD technologies and AR symbology, with the intention of providing inputs for future designs of commercial aviation systems. In addition, insights from the study are relevant for AR design more generally. Endsley’s three-level SA model (1988) was applied as a framework to focus group discussions with eleven aviation subject matter experts. Thematic analysis highlighted multiple operational scenarios where HMD technology and AR may enhance SA, along with the requirements of the technologies to provide these relevant advantages. In future, more detailed user-centred design recommendations should be sought for the specific applications identified within the current study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2167-2181
Number of pages15
JournalVirtual Reality
Issue number3
Early online date29 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

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Innovate UK / UK Aerospace Technology Institute (grant reference number 113108)


  • Augmented reality
  • Head-mounted displays
  • Design requirements
  • User-centred design
  • Situation awareness


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