Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40

Neil Forbes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

This essay focuses on a problem confronting most advanced, industrial states as they prepared for and then engaged in fighting a material-intensive, modern war: how to produce armaments and synthetic products in peacetime but also establish capacity to satisfy a future and uncertain level of demand during wartime. In establishing "shadow factories" which were state-owned but built and operated by risk-averse, private-sector firms, Britain and Germany appeared to produce very similar national solu-tions for internationally-shared, economic problems. Rearmament policies were driven much less by ideological objectives and far more by economic exigencies. However, this essay examines how a combination of economic, political and strategic factors structured the operation of the shadow factory scheme in Britain. In contrast to interpretations that emphasise Britain's readiness for conflict, the evidence offered here suggests that the constraints imposed by democracy on the mobilisation of re-sources placed Britain at a disadvantage at the outset of the Second World War.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEconomic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte
PublisherDeGruyter
Pages49–70
Volume55 issue 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Democracy
Factory
Economics
Mobilization
Germany
Wartime
Private Sector
Armament

Bibliographical note

Due to the publisher's policy, the full text of this item will not be available from the repository until 21st November 2015.

Keywords

  • Britain
  • Germany
  • Second World War
  • democracy
  • rearmament
  • shadow factories

Cite this

Forbes, N. (2014). Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40. In Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte (Vol. 55 issue 2, pp. 49–70). DeGruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013

Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40. / Forbes, Neil.

Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Vol. 55 issue 2 DeGruyter, 2014. p. 49–70.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Forbes, N 2014, Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40. in Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. vol. 55 issue 2, DeGruyter, pp. 49–70. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013
Forbes N. Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40. In Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Vol. 55 issue 2. DeGruyter. 2014. p. 49–70 https://doi.org/10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013
Forbes, Neil. / Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40. Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Vol. 55 issue 2 DeGruyter, 2014. pp. 49–70
@inbook{708ddd9e2c634ce9bcb84dbfab93ac57,
title = "Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40",
abstract = "This essay focuses on a problem confronting most advanced, industrial states as they prepared for and then engaged in fighting a material-intensive, modern war: how to produce armaments and synthetic products in peacetime but also establish capacity to satisfy a future and uncertain level of demand during wartime. In establishing {"}shadow factories{"} which were state-owned but built and operated by risk-averse, private-sector firms, Britain and Germany appeared to produce very similar national solu-tions for internationally-shared, economic problems. Rearmament policies were driven much less by ideological objectives and far more by economic exigencies. However, this essay examines how a combination of economic, political and strategic factors structured the operation of the shadow factory scheme in Britain. In contrast to interpretations that emphasise Britain's readiness for conflict, the evidence offered here suggests that the constraints imposed by democracy on the mobilisation of re-sources placed Britain at a disadvantage at the outset of the Second World War.",
keywords = "Britain, Germany, Second World War, democracy, rearmament, shadow factories",
author = "Neil Forbes",
note = "Due to the publisher's policy, the full text of this item will not be available from the repository until 21st November 2015.",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013",
language = "English",
volume = "55 issue 2",
pages = "49–70",
booktitle = "Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch f{\"u}r Wirtschaftsgeschichte",
publisher = "DeGruyter",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Democracy at a disadvantage? British rearmament, the shadow factory scheme and the coming of war, 1936-40

AU - Forbes, Neil

N1 - Due to the publisher's policy, the full text of this item will not be available from the repository until 21st November 2015.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - This essay focuses on a problem confronting most advanced, industrial states as they prepared for and then engaged in fighting a material-intensive, modern war: how to produce armaments and synthetic products in peacetime but also establish capacity to satisfy a future and uncertain level of demand during wartime. In establishing "shadow factories" which were state-owned but built and operated by risk-averse, private-sector firms, Britain and Germany appeared to produce very similar national solu-tions for internationally-shared, economic problems. Rearmament policies were driven much less by ideological objectives and far more by economic exigencies. However, this essay examines how a combination of economic, political and strategic factors structured the operation of the shadow factory scheme in Britain. In contrast to interpretations that emphasise Britain's readiness for conflict, the evidence offered here suggests that the constraints imposed by democracy on the mobilisation of re-sources placed Britain at a disadvantage at the outset of the Second World War.

AB - This essay focuses on a problem confronting most advanced, industrial states as they prepared for and then engaged in fighting a material-intensive, modern war: how to produce armaments and synthetic products in peacetime but also establish capacity to satisfy a future and uncertain level of demand during wartime. In establishing "shadow factories" which were state-owned but built and operated by risk-averse, private-sector firms, Britain and Germany appeared to produce very similar national solu-tions for internationally-shared, economic problems. Rearmament policies were driven much less by ideological objectives and far more by economic exigencies. However, this essay examines how a combination of economic, political and strategic factors structured the operation of the shadow factory scheme in Britain. In contrast to interpretations that emphasise Britain's readiness for conflict, the evidence offered here suggests that the constraints imposed by democracy on the mobilisation of re-sources placed Britain at a disadvantage at the outset of the Second World War.

KW - Britain

KW - Germany

KW - Second World War

KW - democracy

KW - rearmament

KW - shadow factories

U2 - 10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013

DO - 10.1515/jbwg-2014-0013

M3 - Chapter

VL - 55 issue 2

SP - 49

EP - 70

BT - Economic History Yearbook/ Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte

PB - DeGruyter

ER -