In this study, force field-based simulations are employed to examine the defects in Li-ion diffusion pathways together with activation energies and a solution of dopants in Li2Ti6O13. The lowest defect energy process is found to be the Li Frenkel (0.66 eV/defect), inferring that this defect process is most likely to occur. This study further identifies that cation exchange (Li–Ti) disorder is the second lowest defect energy process. Long-range diffusion of Li-ion is observed in the bc-plane with activation energy of 0.25 eV, inferring that Li ions move fast in this material. The most promising trivalent dopant at the Ti site is Co3+, which would create more Li interstitials in the lattice required for high capacity. The favorable isovalent dopant is the Ge4+ at the Ti site, which may alter the mechanical property of this material. The electronic structures of the favorable dopants are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations.
Bibliographical note© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
FunderThis research was financially supported by the European Union’s H2020 Programme under Grant
Agreement no. 824072–HARVESTORE
- Li-ion diffusion
- atomistic simulation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)