Cytogenotoxic evaluation of the acetonitrile extract, citrinin and dicitrinin-A from Penicillium citrinum

José Williams Gomes de Oliveira Filho, Teresinha de Jesus Aguiar Dos Santos Andrade, Rosália Maria Tôrres de Lima, Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva, Antonielly Campinho Dos Reis, José Victor de Oliveira Santos, Ag-Anne Pereira Melo de Meneses, Ricardo Melo de Carvalho, Ana Maria Oliveira da Mata, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Ana Carolina Soares Dias, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro da Silva, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Cain C T Clark, João Marcelo de Castro E Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante

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    3 Citations (Scopus)
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    Endophytic fungi are promising sources of bioactive substances; however, their secondary metabolites are toxic to plants, animals, and humans. This study aimed toevaluate the toxic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and oxidant/antioxidant activities of acetonitrile extract (AEPc), citrinin (CIT) and dicitrinin-A (DIC-A) of Penicillium citrinum. For this, the test substances at 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2 μg/mLwere exposed for 24 and 48 h in Artemia salina, and 48 h in Allium cepa test systems. The oxidant/antioxidant test was evaluated in pre-, co- and post-treatment with the stressor hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results suggest that the AEPc, CIT and DIC-A at 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2 μg/mL showed toxicity in A. saline, with LC50 (24 h) of 2.03 μg/mL, 1.71 μg/mL and 2.29 μg/mL, and LC50 (48 h) of 0.51 μg/mL, 0.54 μg/mL and 0.54 μg/mL, respectively.In A. cepa, the test substances also exerted cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The AEPc, CIT and DIC-A at lower concentrations modulated the damage induced by H2O2 in the proficient and mutant strains of S. cerevisiae for cytoplasmic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Moreover, the AEPc at 2 μg/mL and CIT at the two highest concentrations did not affect the H2O2-induced DNA damage in the test strains. In conclusion, AEPc, CIT and DIC-A of P. citrinum may exert their toxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects in the test systems possibly through oxidative stress induction pathway.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)688-697
    Number of pages10
    JournalDrug and Chemical Toxicology
    Issue number2
    Early online date25 May 2020
    Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2022

    Bibliographical note

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Drug and Chemical Toxicology on 25/5/2021, available online:

    Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


    • Endophytic fungi
    • Penicillium citrinum
    • cytotoxicity
    • genotoxicity
    • mutagenicity
    • mycotoxins

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Toxicology
    • Pharmacology
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
    • Chemical Health and Safety


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