Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the ideal energy storage device for electric vehicles, and their environmental, economic, and resource risks assessment are urgent issues. Therefore, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of LIBs in the entire lifespan is becoming a hotspot. This study first reviews the basic framework and types, standards and methods, and technical challenges of LCA. Then, the cradle-to-cradle LCA framework for LIBs is constructed, and the technical route of LCA in the stages of battery production, usage, secondary utilization, and material recycling are analyzed in detail. Finally, the carbon footprint in the battery production and recycling stages is conducted under the current and future energy mixes. The results show that battery production significantly impacts the environment and resources, and battery materials recycling and remanufacturing present considerable environmental and economic values. Moreover, the greening of electricity is critical to reducing carbon emissions during the battery life cycle.
FunderThis work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51977131 and No. 51877138 ), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 19ZR1435800 ), the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy under Project No. KF2020 , and Shanghai Science and Technology Development Fund (Grant No. 19QA1406200 ).
- Lithium-ion batteries
- Life cycle assessment
- Carbon footprint
- Electric vehicles