Critical dynamical behavior of the Ising model

Zihua Liu, Erol Vatansever, Gerard Barkema, Nikos Fytas

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We investigate the dynamical critical behavior of the two- and three-dimensional Ising model with Glauber dynamics. In contrast to the usual standing, we focus on the mean-squared deviation of the magnetization $M$, MSD$_M$, as a function of time, as well as on the autocorrelation function of $M$. These two functions are distinct but closely related. We find that MSD$_M$ features a first crossover at time $\tau_1 \sim L^{z_{1}}$, from ordinary diffusion with MSD$_M$ $\sim t$, to anomalous diffusion with MSD$_M$ $\sim t^\alpha$. Purely on numerical grounds, we obtain the values $z_1=0.45(5)$ and $\alpha=0.752(5)$ for the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet. Related to this, the magnetization autocorrelation function crosses over from an exponential decay to a stretched-exponential decay. At later times, we find a second crossover at time $\tau_2 \sim L^{z_{2}}$. Here, MSD$_M$ saturates to its late-time value $\sim L^{2+\gamma/\nu}$, while the autocorrelation function crosses over from stretched-exponential decay to simple exponential one. We also confirm numerically the value $z_{2}=2.1665(12)$, earlier reported as the single dynamic exponent. Continuity of MSD$_M$ requires that $\alpha(z_{2}-z_{1})=\gamma/\nu-z_1$. We speculate that $z_{1} = 1/2$ and $\alpha = 3/4$, values that indeed lead to the expected $z_{2} = 13/6$ result. A complementary analysis for the three-dimensional Ising model provides the estimates $z_{1} = 1.35(2)$, $\alpha=0.90(2)$, and $z_{2} = 2.032(3)$. While $z_{2}$ has attracted significant attention in the literature, we argue that for all practical purposes $z_{1}$ is more important, as it determines the number of statistically independent measurements during a long simulation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
JournalPhysical Review E
Publication statusSubmitted - 2 Jul 2023


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