Constitutive kinematic modes and shapes during vehicle ingress/egress

James Shippen, Barbara May

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
159 Downloads (Pure)


A study was undertaken to investigate the kinematics of older users of passenger vehicles during ingress/egress and to seek correlations between their movement and comfort rating assigned by the subjects to the ease of vehicle ingress and egress. A principal component analysis was performed on the subjects’ kinematics to identify the underlying modes of movement employed by the subjects. It was found that a small number of modes could describe the movements of all the subjects across all of the vehicles. Within the subspace defined by the modal vectors, shapes were found which correlated to the comfort rating for ease of ingress and egress which the subjects had assigned to each of the cars. Knowledge of these shapes which correspond to good and poor ingress and egress will be useful to the designers of interiors and exteriors of passenger vehicles for the older person. It is recommended that vehicle designs for the older person should attempt to avoid body positions which require excessive ankle articulation and lumbar flexion/extension during ingress and egress.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Ergonomics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Applied Ergonomics, [VOL 56 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2016.03.017

© 2016 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127–135
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Ergonomics
Early online date8 Apr 2016
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2016


  • Ingress/egress
  • Principal component analysis
  • Comfort
  • Motion analysis
  • Older users
  • Vehicles
  • Cars
  • Ergonomics


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