Consciousness-raising and practice in ELT coursebooks

Ryo Nitta, Sheena Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Most general ELT coursebooks currently include grammar tasks, suggesting a common view in ELT that learners benefit from form-focused tasks to improve their L2 accuracy. To investigate the nature of such tasks, we developed a framework of consciousness-raising and practice task types, applied it to nine contemporary ELT coursebooks, and thus identified a number of current trends. Despite notable differences among the nine coursebooks, each one is essentially based on a Presentation-Practice approach to grammar teaching. Both inductive and deductive approaches are seen in the presentation stages, followed by two types of practising task. There is little evidence to date of focused communication tasks. These findings are discussed, and should be useful for teachers wishing to evaluate their own selection of grammar tasks and coursebooks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-13
Number of pages10
JournalELT Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005

Bibliographical note

This paper has also been reprinted in: Patricia Hedge, Nick Andon and Martin Dewey (eds) English Language Teaching Volume 2. London: Routledge. See


  • english as an additional language
  • teaching
  • applied linguistics


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