Concentration Levels, Spatial Distribution and Source Identification of PAHs, n-Alkanes, Hopanes and Steranes in Deposited Dust of Mashhad, Iran, and Potential Health Risk Assessment

Faezeh Mahdad, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Mazaher Moeinaddini, Susanne Charlesworth, Nima Emrani

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    This study investigated the carcinogenic contamination level of deposited dust (DD) on the roof near heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), which can greatly affect the indoor air quality. Forty samples of roof DD were collected, and organic compounds (16 PAH compounds, 20 n-alkane homologs, 8 hopanes, and 6 steranes) were extracted using Soxhlet and analyzed by GC-MS. Source identification of organic compounds was conducted by ring classification, diagnostic ratios, and principal component analysis (PCA) was done. The results showed that the average ± SD of total PAHs, n-alkanes, hopanes and steranes in DD were 1356.00 ± 291.45 µg.kg− 1, 3211.65 ± 969.18 µg.g− 1, 146.37 ± 79.45 µg.g− 1 and 469.76 ± 188.25 µg.g− 1, respectively. Also, the highest concentration of organic compounds was measured in the city center, where traffic congestion is expected. Diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes results revealed the vehicular emission as dominant source. On the other hand, PCA indicated vehicular and biogenic emission as the primary sources. Sterane and hopane profiles also confirm these results. Moreover, PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated petroleum combustion as the primary source and PCA showed that vehicular emissions, and natural gas and wood combustion were the main factors. The incremental lifetime cancer risk of PAHs was calculated as 8.45 × 10− 12 for children and 9.80 × 10− 7 for adults, and the imposed risk is considered negligible. Based on the results, diesel and gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for a significant proportion of the hydrocarbon pollution in Mashhad.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number40
    Number of pages23
    JournalEnvironmental Processes
    Volume9
    Issue number40
    Early online date30 Jun 2022
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jun 2022

    Keywords

    • Deposited dust
    • Health Risk Assessment
    • Molecular markers
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    • Source identification

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Engineering
    • Water Science and Technology
    • Pollution
    • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
    • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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