The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology which allows quantification of environmental performance of products and processes based on complete product life cycle was utilised to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with manufacturing a 48 V lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) module. The prospective LCA compared the environmental impact of manufacturing a LIC module using primary ore materials and recycled materials from end-of-life LICs. For both the primary ore and recycled materials processes, the anode preparation stage was associated with the majority of the climate change and terrestrial acidification burdens. LIC module production utilising recovered materials from end-of-life LICs reduced the environmental impact compared to utilisation of primary ore resources. Application of the LCA methodology in early phase research and development (R&D) activities was demonstrated with a case study on reagent choice decision-making process that accounted for environmental impact, technical performance and costs in alignment with the sustainability triple bottom line concept.
Bibliographical noteThis article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND licence.
FunderAdvanced Lithium Ion Capacitors Electrodes (ALICE) project and received funding from Innovate UK Grant No. 102655.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Metals and Alloys