Cocoa Consumption and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Elderly Subjects: a Meta-Analysis

Sadegh Jafarnejad, Mina Salek, Cain C T Clark

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose of Review: The effect of cocoa consumption on blood pressure (BP) has been investigated in previous studies; however, to date, no meta-analysis has been conducted specific to middle-aged and elderly subjects. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa consumption on indices of blood pressure, in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Recent Findings: Pubmed/Medline™, Cochrane Library™, Google Scholar™, and Scopus™ were searched until March 2019. The quantitative Jadad scale was used as the systematic assessment of bias in the included trials. We used a random effects model to estimate the pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We further conducted sensitivity analysis and stratified analysis by baseline blood pressure, follow-up duration, and mean age. Thirteen studies with 758 total participants were included in the present meta-analysis. A significant reduction in SBP by 2.77 (95% CI − 5.28, − 0.27, P = 0.03, I 2 = 89%) and DBP by 1.47 mm/Hg (− 95% CI − 2.40, − 0.55, P = 0.001, I 2 = 45%) were observed after cocoa consumption. Stratified analyses showed BP-lowering effects of cocoa consumption in longer-term duration and hypertensive subgroups. Summary: Our meta-analysis showed a significant inverse association between cocoa consumption and SBP/DBP. However, the analysis could not conclude any beneficial effect of cocoa consumption on blood pressure in normotensive/elevated blood pressure subjects. Therefore, further studies are warranted to affirm the efficacy of cocoa consumption for the improvement of blood pressure in elderly subjects.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1
    JournalCurrent Hypertension Reports
    Early online date6 Jan 2020
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


    • Blood pressure
    • Cocoa
    • Elderly
    • Meta-analysis
    • Middle-aged

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Internal Medicine


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