Co-processing of industrial wastes as alternative raw materials in cement manufacture is an example of industrial symbiosis for improved material resource efficiency. Since co-processing introduces impurities from wastes, such as air pollution control residue (APCR) from municipal solid waste combustion, into the cement kiln, a better understanding of their environmental impacts and effects on cement manufacturing and quality is needed. Portland cement clinkers containing 5–35% raw or 5–34% washed APCR were prepared, with formation of all typical minerals, but with effects on clinkering reactions, and increased 2CaO·SiO2 and decreased 3CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·Al2O3. Raw APCR affected the shape of the 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 grains, and cement paste from clinker made with 35% APCR exhibited negligible 28d strength. Pastes from the clinkers with lower contents of APCR or washed APCR had strengths that were lower than that of the control at 7d, similar at 28d (∼90 MPa) and higher at 6 m (up to 120 MPa), consistent with their 2CaO·SiO2 and 3CaO·SiO2 contents. Utilization of minerals in APCR thus comes with a trade-off against cement quality. Volatilisation of S, Cl, Pb was reduced by washing, which fully eliminated volatilisation of Zn. Zn was found mainly in the interstitial phases of the clinker, in solid solution in 4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3 or 3CaO·Al2O3. Further investigation is required to determine whether Zn and other incorporated elements may be released from the cement paste when these phases react with water. APCR co-processing may reduce CO2 emissions by avoiding CaCO3 decomposition, but this is an uncertain benefit, which may be outweighed by the detrimental effects of APCR alkalis, Cl, S and metals on cement production and quality. Life cycle environmental impacts associated with washing, and dispersal of contaminants in the built environment through construction materials, are additional concerns.
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Cleaner Production. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Cleaner Production, 254, (2020) DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119924
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- Fly ash
- Element speciation
- Industrial symbiosis