Co-ordination Changes during a Maximal Effort 100 m Short Course Breaststroke Swim

Samuel W. Oxford, Mike Price, C. Payton, Robert S. James

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


    The aim of the study was to establish the changes in co-ordination that occur during a 100 m breaststroke swim from a water start by: 1) measuring the kinematic changes that occur as the swimmer progressed through the four laps and, 2) analysing the co-ordination of the arms and legs (transition phase) corresponding to the time between the end of the leg propulsion and the start of the arm propulsion phases. Breaststroke participants (n=8, females and n=18, males) performed a 100 m maximal swim in a 25 m pool. They were recorded underwater using three 50 Hz cameras (one at each end of the pool and one mounted on a trolley). The last three strokes prior to turns were analysed. Significant changes in clean swim speed (p
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationBiomechanics and Medicine in Swimming XI.
    EditorsPer-Ludvik Kjendlie, Robert Keig Stallman, Jan Cabri
    Place of PublicationOslo, Norway
    PublisherNorwegian School of Sport Science
    ISBN (Print)ISBN 978-82-502-0438-6 (printed), ISBN 978-82-502-0439-3 (electronic / pdf version)
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Bibliographical note

    This is a published conference paper from the Proceedings of the XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics
    and Medicine in Swimming, Oslo, 16th -19th June 2010. It is freely available on the Norwegian School of Sport Science website at


    • biomechanics
    • swimming
    • breaststroke
    • endurance
    • transition phase
    • stroke rate
    • stroke length
    • co-ordination


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