Clinical evaluation of stretchable and wearable inkjet-printed strain gauge sensor for respiratory rate monitoring at different body postures

Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli, Loiy Al-Ghussain, Saleem El Bouri, Fuad Habash, Haipeng Liu, Dingchang Zheng

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)
    14 Downloads (Pure)


    Respiratory rate (RR) is a vital sign with continuous, convenient, and accurate measurement which is difficult and still under investigation. The present study investigates and evaluates a stretchable and wearable inkjet-printed strain gauge sensor (IJP) to estimate the RR continuously by detecting the respiratory volume change in the chest area. As the volume change could cause different strain changes at different body postures, this study aims to investigate the accuracy of the IJP RR sensor at selected postures. The evaluation was performed twice on 15 healthy male subjects (mean ± SD of age: 24 ± 1.22 years). The RR was simultaneously measured in breaths per minute (BPM) by the IJP RR sensor and a reference RR sensor (e-Health nasal thermal sensor) at each of the five body postures namely standing, sitting at 90, Flower's position at 45, supine, and right lateral recumbent. There was no significant difference in measured RR between IJP and reference sensors, between two trials, or between different body postures (all p > 0.05). Body posture did not have any significant effect on the difference of RR measurements between IJP and the reference sensors (difference <0.01 BPM for each measurement in both trials). The IJP sensor could accurately measure the RR at different body postures, which makes it a promising, simple, and user-friendly option for clinical and daily uses.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number480
    JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2020

    Bibliographical note

    © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


    • Body posture
    • Clinical evaluation
    • Inkjet printing
    • Respiratory rate
    • Silver nanoparticles
    • Strain gauge
    • Stretchable and wearable sensors

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Materials Science(all)
    • Instrumentation
    • Engineering(all)
    • Process Chemistry and Technology
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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