Choose Where You Live Carefully: Built Environment Differences in Children’s Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardiometabolic Risk

Alan M. Nevill, Cézane Priscila Reuter, Caroline Brand, Anelise Reis Gaya, Jorge Mota, Jane Dagmar Pollo Renner, Michael J. Duncan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Information regarding urban-rural differences in health indicators are scarce in Brazil. This study sought to identify rural-urban differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) in Brazilian children and adolescents whilst controlling for the important confounding variables including social economic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study developed with children and adolescents (n = 2250, age 11.54 ± 2.76) selected from a city in the south of Brazil. CRF was estimated using a 6-minute run/walk test. CMR scores were calculated by summing different cardiometabolic risk indicators. CRF was analysed assuming a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components. CMR differences in residential locations was assessed using Analysis of caovariance (ANCOVA) adopting SES, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), age and fitness as covariates. Results indicated a main effect of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the highest CRF, and children living in the periphery of towns having the lowest. Analysis also revealed significant main effects of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the lowest CMR and children living in the centre of towns having the highest. Therefore, Brazilian children living in a rural environment appear to have superior health benefits.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
Number of pages10
JournalSports
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: We thank the following organisations for their support: the Higher Education Personnel Improvement Coordination—Brazil (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • fitness
  • health
  • paediatrics
  • rural
  • urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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