Information regarding urban-rural differences in health indicators are scarce in Brazil. This study sought to identify rural-urban differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and car-diometabolic risk (CMR) in Brazilian children and adolescents whilst controlling for the important confounding variables including social economic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study developed with children and adolescents (n = 2250, age 11.54 ± 2.76) selected from a city in the south of Brazil. CRF was estimated using a 6-minute run/walk test. CMR scores were calculated by summing different cardiometabolic risk indicators. CRF was analysed assuming a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components. CMR differences in residential locations was assessed using Analysis of caovariance (ANCOVA) adopting SES, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), age and fitness as covariates. Results indicated a main effect of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the highest CRF, and children living in the periphery of towns having the lowest. Analysis also revealed significant main effects of location (p< 0.001) with children living a rural environment having the lowest CMR and children living in the centre of towns having the highest. Therefore, Brazilian children living in a rural environment appear to have superior health benefits.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: We thank the following organisations for their support: the Higher Education Personnel Improvement Coordination—Brazil (CAPES), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Research Support Foundation of the State of Rio Grande do Sul.
Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation