Characterization of the FFC cambridge process for NiTi production using in situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction

B.K. Jackson, D. Dye, D. Inman, R. Bhagat, R.J. Talling, S.L. Raghunathan, M. Jackson, R.J. Dashwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To date, the characterization of the reduction pathway for the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process has been achieved through ex situ studies, leading to some ambiguities. This study employs a synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique to monitor in situ the FFC reduction of Formula to NiTi, yielding an unmatched level of detail on the electrochemical and chemical reactions involved. The reduction pathway consists of rapid initial reduction of Formula to form Formula and Ni, then the transformation of Ni to Formula , and finally the consumption of Formula and Formula to produce NiTi. The phases observed agree with thermodynamic predictions [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ] and allow the mapping of the reduction pathway on an electrochemical predominance diagram. Formula is a short-lived transient phase in the reduction pathway. Formula was found in significant quantities in ex situ studies [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ; Chin. Sci. Bull. , 51 , 2535 (2006) ]. The authors propose that Formula forms during furnace cooling to ambient temperature if extracted before a complete reduction. Neither Formula nor CaO was observed. The progression of the reduction front is clearly in line with existing observations and models [ Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci. , 35 , 223 (2004) ; J. Phys. Chem. B , 109 , 14043 (2005) ].
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E57-E63
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume157
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

Fingerprint

Synchrotrons
Diffraction
X rays
Chemical reactions
Furnaces
Thermodynamics
Cooling
X ray diffraction

Keywords

  • electrochemistry
  • nickel alloys
  • reduction (chemical)
  • synchrotron radiation
  • titanium alloys
  • X-ray diffraction

Cite this

Characterization of the FFC cambridge process for NiTi production using in situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction. / Jackson, B.K.; Dye, D.; Inman, D.; Bhagat, R.; Talling, R.J.; Raghunathan, S.L.; Jackson, M.; Dashwood, R.J.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, No. 4, 2010, p. E57-E63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jackson, B.K. ; Dye, D. ; Inman, D. ; Bhagat, R. ; Talling, R.J. ; Raghunathan, S.L. ; Jackson, M. ; Dashwood, R.J. / Characterization of the FFC cambridge process for NiTi production using in situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction. In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 2010 ; Vol. 157, No. 4. pp. E57-E63.
@article{9e98b4dc190042249424191e11de59c8,
title = "Characterization of the FFC cambridge process for NiTi production using in situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction",
abstract = "To date, the characterization of the reduction pathway for the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process has been achieved through ex situ studies, leading to some ambiguities. This study employs a synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique to monitor in situ the FFC reduction of Formula to NiTi, yielding an unmatched level of detail on the electrochemical and chemical reactions involved. The reduction pathway consists of rapid initial reduction of Formula to form Formula and Ni, then the transformation of Ni to Formula , and finally the consumption of Formula and Formula to produce NiTi. The phases observed agree with thermodynamic predictions [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ] and allow the mapping of the reduction pathway on an electrochemical predominance diagram. Formula is a short-lived transient phase in the reduction pathway. Formula was found in significant quantities in ex situ studies [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ; Chin. Sci. Bull. , 51 , 2535 (2006) ]. The authors propose that Formula forms during furnace cooling to ambient temperature if extracted before a complete reduction. Neither Formula nor CaO was observed. The progression of the reduction front is clearly in line with existing observations and models [ Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci. , 35 , 223 (2004) ; J. Phys. Chem. B , 109 , 14043 (2005) ].",
keywords = "electrochemistry, nickel alloys, reduction (chemical), synchrotron radiation, titanium alloys, X-ray diffraction",
author = "B.K. Jackson and D. Dye and D. Inman and R. Bhagat and R.J. Talling and S.L. Raghunathan and M. Jackson and R.J. Dashwood",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1149/1.3299369",
language = "English",
volume = "157",
pages = "E57--E63",
journal = "Journal of the Electrochemical Society",
issn = "0013-4651",
publisher = "Electrochemical Society",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of the FFC cambridge process for NiTi production using in situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction

AU - Jackson, B.K.

AU - Dye, D.

AU - Inman, D.

AU - Bhagat, R.

AU - Talling, R.J.

AU - Raghunathan, S.L.

AU - Jackson, M.

AU - Dashwood, R.J.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - To date, the characterization of the reduction pathway for the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process has been achieved through ex situ studies, leading to some ambiguities. This study employs a synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique to monitor in situ the FFC reduction of Formula to NiTi, yielding an unmatched level of detail on the electrochemical and chemical reactions involved. The reduction pathway consists of rapid initial reduction of Formula to form Formula and Ni, then the transformation of Ni to Formula , and finally the consumption of Formula and Formula to produce NiTi. The phases observed agree with thermodynamic predictions [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ] and allow the mapping of the reduction pathway on an electrochemical predominance diagram. Formula is a short-lived transient phase in the reduction pathway. Formula was found in significant quantities in ex situ studies [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ; Chin. Sci. Bull. , 51 , 2535 (2006) ]. The authors propose that Formula forms during furnace cooling to ambient temperature if extracted before a complete reduction. Neither Formula nor CaO was observed. The progression of the reduction front is clearly in line with existing observations and models [ Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci. , 35 , 223 (2004) ; J. Phys. Chem. B , 109 , 14043 (2005) ].

AB - To date, the characterization of the reduction pathway for the Fray Farthing Chen (FFC) Cambridge process has been achieved through ex situ studies, leading to some ambiguities. This study employs a synchrotron X-ray diffraction technique to monitor in situ the FFC reduction of Formula to NiTi, yielding an unmatched level of detail on the electrochemical and chemical reactions involved. The reduction pathway consists of rapid initial reduction of Formula to form Formula and Ni, then the transformation of Ni to Formula , and finally the consumption of Formula and Formula to produce NiTi. The phases observed agree with thermodynamic predictions [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ] and allow the mapping of the reduction pathway on an electrochemical predominance diagram. Formula is a short-lived transient phase in the reduction pathway. Formula was found in significant quantities in ex situ studies [ J. Electrochem. Soc. , 155 , E171 (2008) ; Chin. Sci. Bull. , 51 , 2535 (2006) ]. The authors propose that Formula forms during furnace cooling to ambient temperature if extracted before a complete reduction. Neither Formula nor CaO was observed. The progression of the reduction front is clearly in line with existing observations and models [ Metall. Mater. Trans., B, Process Metall. Mater. Proc. Sci. , 35 , 223 (2004) ; J. Phys. Chem. B , 109 , 14043 (2005) ].

KW - electrochemistry

KW - nickel alloys

KW - reduction (chemical)

KW - synchrotron radiation

KW - titanium alloys

KW - X-ray diffraction

U2 - 10.1149/1.3299369

DO - 10.1149/1.3299369

M3 - Article

VL - 157

SP - E57-E63

JO - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

JF - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

SN - 0013-4651

IS - 4

ER -